Plated through-hole construction vs. Surface mount technology: Which PCB Assembly Technique is better?
Over the years, developments in the fabrication of printed circuit boards or PCB assembly have been made. At present, it has become an integral component of various electronic devices, machines, gadgets, automobiles, and many electrical appliances. Without high quality PCB’s, having upgraded smart phones and laptops would not be possible. It is used in a wide array of industries that it has developed various PCB fabrication techniques over time.
Two of the most widely-used PCB assembly techniques are going to be the focus of this article: the plated through-hole construction or PTH and surface mount technology or SMT. Though there were other techniques used before them like the box-build construction and point-to-point assembly, these two are the most popularly used in PCB construction today. Hopefully, this article would be able to help you understand the differences and advantages of each technique.
Plated though-hole construction (PTH)
The development of plated through-hole construction technique started in 1949 when Moe Abramson and Stanislaus F. Danko of the US Army Signal Corps discovered the Auto-Sembly process. This process makes use of a copper foil interconnection pattern wherein component wire leads are inserted into it and are soldered. The US army obtained the patent for their work in 1956.
It continued to evolve as various etching techniques and board lamination methods were developed.
In PTH construction, the electronic components are mounted into the PCB by inserting the wire leads into drilled holes and soldering it into the copper patterns on the other side of the circuit board. Soldering of the leads can be done manually, but for large scale fabrication of PCB’s, using a wave soldering machine is more efficient.
Circuit boards made using this method is known for its durability. Since leads are soldered on one side of the board, it forms stronger bonds. However, the process of drilling holes into the PCB must be done accurately and this makes the PCB fabrication process more expensive.
Surface mount technology (SMT)
SMT or surface mount technology is the most developed and widely used PCB assembly technique used today. It appeared during 1960’s but it gained attention and was used in early 1980’s. SMT was then widely known by 1990’s and continued to evolve up to our present time.
In this type of PCB fabrication technique, electronic components are mounted to the surface of the circuit board, hence it is named surface mount technology. The components were redesigned too; instead of having wire leads that used to be inserted into holes (like in PTH assembly), it has end caps or small metal tabs which are directly soldered on the surface of the circuit board. And with the modern world’s continuous development of smaller and slimmer devices, SMT became more in demand, as it allows electronic components to be placed on both sides of a circuit board. Even smaller PCB assemblies now have much higher circuit densities, resulting to faster upgrading of electronic devices.
Surface mount technology has also been found to have more advantages than plated though-hole construction. Using this process is more time efficient and less expensive as it does not require lots of drilling of holes and is also highly automated. It is also ideal for industries that require compact designs as PCB’s made using SMT are smaller.
In conclusion, surface mount technology is better than plated through-hole construction. Though each has remarkable advantages, manufacturers benefit more in using SMT. However, there are also instances where the use of both assembly techniques is needed. The result of these combined PCB assembly technique is really great, as the product produced could be slim and handy, yet durable.
As surprising as it sounds, being a motivational speaker has its drawbacks. These people may look happy whenever they deliver their content but their time in front of the microphone is just another facet of their lives. And just like any other career, there are certainly some disadvantages to it.
1. Less time with the family:
Take note that a motivational speaker is also a freelancer. Speakers have to constantly be on the lookout for the next speaking session or their income ends at their last gig. On top of the hunting, there’s also the traveling. Motivational speakers do not dictate where they want to talk. They go to where the people are, to where the audiences are. And that sometimes entails taking a couple of flights every day. With all the preparations and the traveling that they have to do, finding time for their loved ones becomes rather difficult.
2. Constant scrutiny:
Although motivational speakers do not have any bosses that give out evaluations on a regular basis, they have even more discerning critics that are always on the lookout for any missteps they make. The work of a motivational speaker isn’t graded based on how well they talked or how much their audiences laughed at their jokes. Their work is graded based on how much of a change they’ve created in the lives of the people to whom they speak. Their worst critics are themselves. And their audiences come at a very close second when it comes to scrutinizing their work. They are held to the highest standards every time they take the stage.
3. The other jobs they have to do:
Motivational speakers don’t just talk in front of an audience all the time. They also perform their own marketing and book work. They promote their services, they look for their own clients, they answer their own emails and they do their own presentations. People do not notice this part because all they see are the successful and happy people on stage who share their secrets to success.
4. The emotional toil:
Motivational speakers are some of the most emotionally-mature people. This is because they understand that people should not see them stressed or bothered. It would ruin their credibility to be exposed as people who cannot handle stressful situations. Their livelihood depends on their ability to make problems look like they mean very little. And even when they are actually stressed, they aren’t allowed to show it. They have to suck everything up and set it aside and replace all of that with a sincere smile backed by the willingness to inspire. These people could be smiling at the moment but there could be a million problems running through their head.
5. The tough crowds:
It’s not always happy smiles from an eager audience that awaits a speaker. Sometimes, it’s the disinterested stares of presidents, vice presidents, executives, managers, CEOs, and even COOs that greet him. Speakers might find themselves talking to older people who think they know better and they are supposed to teach and inspire these people. It most certainly isn’t always rainbows and butterflies.
But the one thing that keeps them where they are is the fact that they love their jobs. That is the biggest requirement for being a motivational speaker. They could put up with all these downsides and will not hesitate to do the same thing the next day because they have a passion for what they do. And that is one of the secrets to why they’re so happy all the time. Their love for their job outweighs the challenges that it brings, no matter how draining those are.
Motivational speakers are some of the most emotionally-mature people, get more information at motivational-speaker-success.com.
Innate Functions of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) That Makes It an Effective Fertility Treatment
The body houses different types of hormones that have unique roles and functions. In certain instances, however, the function of some hormones may overlap. There are also cases where unusual occurrences or changes in the body may enable the production of new hormones that take the place of other hormones. This is how the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) hormone can be used to treat fertility issues in both men and women. Try hcg drops by 1hcgdrops it will also give benefits. What are some of the innate functions of this hormone that makes it an excellent candidate for addressing certain fertility issues?
1. It takes over the function of the luteinizing hormone when pregnancy takes place.
During the menstrual cycle, the luteinizing hormone and the follicle stimulating hormone play a major role in inducing ovulation, or the ability of the body to form a viable egg that can be fertilized by a sperm cell in order to form an embryo. Once fertilization is successful, HCG is produced and it takes over the function of the luteinizing hormone. In some cases, however, the body is unable to produce a viable egg during the ovulation phase.
2. It enhances ovulation and is used to stimulate the production of multiple egg cells.
Because the luteinizing hormone and HCG have similar functions, the latter is used to trigger ovulation. The medical practitioner carefully analyzes the menstrual cycle of a female patient and injects a dose of the hormone in question in order to boost the body’s ability to produce a viable egg. Aside from inducing natural pregnancy, this method is also used to stimulate the body to produce multiple egg cells that can be harvested and used later on for more advanced procedures such as in-vitro fertilization.
3. It promotes genital development in the male fetus
HCG is known to produce signals that prepare the uterus for the impending implantation of the fetus. This ensures that the fetus stays in its proper place, keeping risks of ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage considerably low. Aside from this function, it is also known to stimulate the production of testosterone that will aid in the genital development of a male fetus. No other hormone is associated with this function.
4. It helps in increasing sperm count.
Since this hormone is able to stimulate the development of the genitals in a male fetus, this potential is tapped in order to address low sperm count or low testosterone levels in males. Some might think that this hormone will not work on males since it’s most commonly found in women. Well, keep in mind that even men were once embryos which produced the said hormone. Therefore, whatever this hormone is able to do to a male baby, it can also do to someone who is already out of the womb.
The processes that are happening inside the human body are so amazing and complex. Each cell, organ and hormone has a unique function and everything is interconnected. If one hormone fails, there are even instances that an alternate hormone will try to take over its functions. This is the reason why hormones, such as HCG, can be used to treat infertility.
Humans are created differently. For some, getting pregnant is an easy feat. For others, it is very challenging to conceive and if this occurs, complications can still threaten the success of the pregnancy. Thanks to modern technology, couples who are having difficulties in having a baby can avail of hormone treatments that could increase their chances of conceiving a child. The results from this treatment may not be fully guaranteed, but trying it out is better than not doing anything at all.
The military started the tradition of challenge coins. In the days of Ancient Rome, special coins were given out to soldiers as bonuses. These were in recognition of acts of valor and good performance of their duties. In those days, the coins had economic value. This means that the coins could be used as regular coins, to purchase goods. However, most of the soldiers chose to keep the coins, because of the special circumstances by which these were acquired.
Over the years, the value of these special coins became more numismatic and less monetary. That means that the value of the coin is more about its historical significance than its face value. Challenge coins are rarely made from precious metals such as gold and silver. The most common materials used are less expensive metals such as copper, brass, bronze, and iron. The finish is often enamel, which is not that expensive. Some coins are gold- or silver-plated, such as limited editions and those that commemorate anniversaries. Older coins can fetch much higher prices than the actual value of the metals used, even if there were no gold or silver plating.
Challenge coins became more popular in the military during the Vietnam War. The first ones were made for the 10th and the 11th Special Forces Group of the US Army. They were not worth much, based on the materials used, but held even greater value because of what the men who owned these went through during the war. These coins were actually made in order to curb a more dangerous practice among the soldiers. During the Vietnam War, a peculiar custom developed among the soldiers. They kept a single bullet for themselves, meant for a very special circumstance. This bullet was considered “the last resort.” Its purpose was to use it on themselves should they be captured by the enemies. It quickly became a symbol of pride, of courage to make that last sacrifice for the sake of their country. When soldiers met, they would display the bullets. The act was a challenge to other soldiers nearby to see if they, too, had the courage to make that ultimate sacrifice. Those without “the bullet” would place other ammunition to symbolize that they were also willing to make the sacrifice. Soon, the soldiers were no longer using bullets for challenges. They would place heavy ammos instead such as M-16s, grenades, and rifles. These challenges would often occur in public places such as bars, and became a threat to public safety. To curb this practice, special coins were minted, which were promoted to be used for such challenges. For more special coins visit www.challengecoins4less.com.
Another popular coin was the “Buffalo Bill.” This coin is considered the oldest pure coin, which was minted during the Korean War. The coins were given to soldiers of the 17th Infantry Regimen. Colonel “Buffalo Bill” Quinn had these coins made. On the coin was an image of a bucking buffalo, with the year 1812 below it. The number signified the year that the infantry regimen was formed. On the other side of the coin was engraved “1950-1951” and “Korea” on opposite poles of the coin. These referred to the years of the Korean War. At the center was a logo of the regimen.
One recent type of challenge coin is the “Sweethearts for Soldiers” coins. These challenge coins had simple designs, but carried a great deal of encouragement to the troops stationed in Iraq. These coins were brought to the troops in Iraq by a group of NFL cheerleaders. These coins were given to the troops to show gratitude and appreciation to the sacrifices they made.
Prohormones are testosterone boosters and building blocks which the body turns into anabolic steroids. These prohormones are responsible for the increase muscular strength, muscular mass and size gains, and physical endurance among athletes and bodybuilders. It is possible to buy prohormones in the market with a doctor’s prescription. It should be noted that prohormones should be taken in the right dosage. Otherwise, there might be adverse effects. The prohormones are orally taken and are processed by the liver. Because of this, those who buy prohormones should be careful about the products they buy in order to keep their bodies healthy.
There are advantages and disadvantages of using prohormones. Knowing these will keep you safe and healthy. Want to get more information about the prohormones visit uniquemicals.com. With enough information about prohormones, you can make the wisest decision about what’s best for your body. Consumers should not worry about these advantages as they can be avoided. When you have the right information, you will be able to use this supplement properly. Prohormones are body supplements which are completely natural. Taking this hormone supplement should help the body produce more hormones.
Before you decide to buy prohormones, you have to decide what you want to buy them for. Aside from muscle building, these hormones could be used to combat infertility, especially among men. When they age, men experience a decrease in their levels of testosterone. These hormones could help them increase their drive. In women, prohormones are used to combat the symptoms of premenstrual tension. They are also used in curing mood disorders and certain illnesses. Also among the benefits of prohormones is their sleep inducing properties. The trick to getting all these benefits and advantages of prohormones is to use them in the right dosage. A doctor should be able to determine this and issue the proper prescription. In terms of costs, prohormones are cheaper than other steroids or synthetic supplements. These benefits make these supplements more appealing to a lot of people.
One of the biggest disadvantages of using prohormones is that they could be hepatoxic. This means that they could affect the liver. Since they are taken orally in the form of capsules or pills, prohormones need to be filtered by the liver before it is absorbed into the bloodstream. The liver can only process so much prohormones. Too much of these supplements can overload the liver and cause a disruption in the function of the lipid panel. Furthermore, prohormones could lead to dizziness, increase bad cholesterol levels, hypertensions and headaches. You need to take cycle support supplements after to ease the side effects brought by the prohormones to your body.
Even though prohormones are inexpensive, there are more things that should be taken into consideration other than the cost. Another disadvantage of using a prohormone is that since a prohormone is used to increase the production of a certain hormone in the body, it might lead to the decrease of another hormone. This could then cause a hormonal imbalance. Prohormones that are used to treat premenstrual tension could lead to weight loss followed by weight gain afterwards. Prohormones that are used to boost testosterone levels, on the other hand, could lead to hair damage and loss.
Just like anything else in the world, everything should be in moderation. Every action should be thought of and taken responsibly by every person with the primary concern of taking care of the body. Prohormones should only be taken when they are needed. Too much of anything is bad; hence too much intake of prohormones is bad as well. If you want to buy prohormones, keep in mind the advantages and disadvantages of these supplements so that you will have a guide as to how you could properly use it to your advantage. If you have bought prohormones already and are currently using it, keep track of your prohormones intake and discuss it with your doctor. Always remember that safety and health comes first before anything else.
When people hear the term “golf equipment,” most of them think about golf balls or golf clubs. People can be forgiven for thinking that the phrase only encompasses the balls or the clubs used in golf.
In reality, playing golf means looking at several other pieces of equipment that can help improve a man’s game. The equipment people use to play golf isn’t just limited to the club and balls. Other things such as rangefinders, wind gauges, ball markers, golf bags, golf clubs, and golf balls are just some of the things that make up a golfer’s arsenal.
All of these things might seem unnecessary to some people. Nothing more than just a waste of money. However, taken together as a whole, these pieces of golf equipment are bought by golfers because they take their game seriously, and anyone else who wants to do the same would do well to sit down and learn why some of them are important.
The golf clubs
When someone hears the word golfer, most people think about a person carrying a metal club that he uses to whack the ball with. In essence, the golf club is the tool a person uses in order to hit the ball and make it fly, jump, or roll, a certain distance.
Any golfer, at least those worth their salt, will always take several clubs on the course. Golfers may carry any number of clubs they wish to, as it does not go beyond fourteen, which is the limit prescribed by the rules.
There are many different kinds of golf clubs out there. However, the three main categories are referred to a putters, irons, and woods. Woods are what golfers use when they need to cover long shots, usually when they are at the tee or fairway. Irons are what golfers use when they find themselves in need of precision shots when they’re in the rough or even the fairway.
Hybrids are those that combine the characteristics of irons and woods.
Understanding golf balls
Another important piece of golf equipment is the golf ball. Back in the old days, people used to play golf with all sorts of different balls. Most of them were made out of leather and were stuffed with a wide assortment of different materials. These things gave them different properties that would affect their flight and trajectory.
Nowadays, most golf balls are made from different materials – often a combination of rubber and plastic. Reading up on the different kinds of balls will help someone understand what makes each of them different. A lot of material science goes into the design and construction of these balls.
However, those who plan on taking the game casually or just for the sake of trying it are better off buying the basic balls or the cheapest ones that they can find.
What are tees?
Tees are either made of wood or plastic. Golfers push them into the ground and place their golf balls on top of them to rest before making their shot. Positioning the ball this way makes it easier to hit.
Basically, a tee is a small spike made from either plastic or wood that has a flat surface on the top where a golfer can place the ball.
They come in varying lengths and are often chosen based on the golfer’s preference.
Different kinds of golf bags
Golfers are often seen with a golf bag. These bags are made from nylon, canvas, or leather. There are also different types of bags such as carry, cart, staff, and travel bags. Golfers take great care on the kind of bag that they purchase knowing that they are used for holding some of the most important pieces of golf equipment in their arsenal.
Lanyards were originally made for military use. Back then, these was typically worn around the shoulder to hold weaponry such as pistols and swords. At present, it still has the same purpose as before but now, it holds more common items such as IDs, keycards, cameras and flash drives.
Among the many objects the reliable logo lanyards can hold, perhaps the most common is the identification card. Utilized for this particular intent by schools and companies alike, these neck straps are slowly weaving their way into becoming a uniform staple piece. But should it?
The answer to that question is one, big, fat YES. Making logo lanyards part of your uniform is not only smart and practical but also beneficial because it will put your company on the map in a very good way.
Lanyard Advantages IN the Company
Lanyards promote corporate uniformity, giving employees a sense of belonging. Whether or not your company has a prescribed uniform (some allow employees to wear anything they want as long as it is business casual), lanyards would be a great way to reinforce branding consistency inside the office. With the right color, design and fabric, company staff will surely not hesitate using lanyards to hold their identification or key cards.
In addition to the lanyard’s effect on company unity, logo lanyards are also very practical as ID holders since they allow easy access. With these neck straps, every security personnel in your building will not have a hard time verifying your identity as a member of the company. Lanyards are also commonly designed to be long neck straps so employees would not have to take it off because it can easily reach a standard access card reader mounted on the wall or door frame of your establishment.
A nicely-designed lanyard can also be a good motivation that will encourage employees to (finally) adhere to the company policy of wearing their IDs.
Lanyard Advantages FOR the Company
The number one benefit of logo lanyards for the company can be described in one word: BRANDING.
Though blank or plain lanyards are very common, companies with creative marketing or human resources departments know better. If you see these lanyards as more than mere neck straps but more of a branding tool, you will definitely reap the doles of a well-designed lanyard.
By choosing high-quality materials and having it printed with a strong, relevant design, lanyards have the potential to be a very effective marketing collateral. Just make sure everything you put on it is relative to each other and to your brand. Start by taking into consideration the aesthetics of your company logo. More often than not, designers base the colors of the lanyard on the official logo. From there, they can add in the business’s website URL, phone number, or tagline.
Remember that when you do decide to make logo lanyards part of your company uniform, make it in such a way that it clearly represents your brand. Choose a high-quality fabric, a durable attachment and a stunning design, and you will surely have enthusiastic employees and happy clients lining up to get your company’s lanyards. No need to worry, too, because these neck straps will not require you to take a huge amount from your company’s hard-earned assets. Just find a reliable supplier, order your desired lanyards in advance (placing an order weeks or even a month before allows you more time to address any revisions in design or material), be present in every important step of the production process, and you will have your lanyards exactly how you envisioned them to be.
The lanyard material holds up to the wear and tear and is a great choice when quality is your primary concern. As with all lanyard types, our custom lanyards come standard with a 1 color lanyard, a 1 color silkscreen.
Investing in Long Island real estate is one of the largest financial investments you can make in your life. After all, homes and other properties in the area are very high in value. Therefore, it would be devastating to find out if the home you purchased actually leaks during the rainy season. Avoid the horrors of bad home purchases by making sure you look in the right places.
A good place where you can start looking is the Internet. Since most buyers make use of the Internet in looking for homes to buy, real estate agents make sure to post their listings online. Here are a few suggested websites you might want to visit if you are planning to purchase a home in Long Island.
(1) Multiple Listing Service of Long Island, Inc. (MLSLI)
MLSLI.com is a perfect website to visit if you are looking for a property to buy in Long Island. Not only does it display thousands of listings you might be interested in; it is also subsidiary of the Long Island Board of Realtors, Inc.
As the domain name suggests, Realtor.com is the official website of the National Association of Realtors®. If you plan on purchasing homes in a certain location in Long Island, you can simply select an area from the list displayed on the left side of the website. You can choose from Queens County, Nassau County, Western Suffolk County, and Eastern Suffolk County.
Newsday is actually the name for an official publication in Long Island. The website is a good place to visit when looking for Long Island properties since it has a section filled with real estate classified ads.
Trulia is a website that displays real estate listings from all over the nation. Searching for Long Island properties is easy since the website has a simple interface and is easy to navigate. You can make your search specific by providing your preferred minimum and maximum prices or the number of bedrooms and bathrooms you would want the house to have.
(5) Laffey Fine Homes
This is a real estate agency which operates primarily in Nassau and Suffolk Counties in Long Island as well as in Queens. It is a family-owned agency and is affiliated with other global and prominent real estate agencies. The website displays properties for sale in descending order according to price.
When searching online, make sure you inquire about anything else not displayed in the listings. As much as possible, make sure to get a viewing schedule with the agent in charge before making any purchases. Make sure the price is reasonable and that the place has all the things you want in a home.
li-realestatefinder is a leading website providing the best real estate deals in garden city, valley stream and tri-state
- Plated through-hole construction vs. Surface mount technology: Which PCB Assembly Technique is better?
- The Pitfalls of Motivational Speakers
- Innate Functions of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) That Makes It an Effective Fertility Treatment
- Famous Challenge Coins
- The Pros and Cons You Have to Deal with When You Buy Prohormones